Chronology of the life of Mahatma Gandhi - 1921

January 1: Surendranath Banerjea knighted. At Nagpur, Gandhiji attended All-India Congress Committee and Working Committee meetings.


January 6: Gandhiji, in speech at public meeting in Chhindwara, explained Nagpur Congress resolution.


January 9: Lord Reading’s appointment as Viceroy and Governor-General announced.


January 10: The Duke of Connaught arrived in Madras.


January 12: Model rules of Provincial Congress Committee, drafted by Gandhiji, published in Young India. In Madras, the Duke of Connaught opened new Legislative Council.


January 13: Gandhiji spoke to students of Gujarat Mahavidyalaya at Ahmedabad.


January 15: Col. and Mrs. Wedgwood left Madras for Colombo en route to England.


January 19: At Nadiad, Gandhiji addressed meetings of students, teachers and merchants. At Vadtal, spoke at public meeting and meeting of sadhus. In open letter in Young India addressing “Young Bengalis”, asked them to practise tolerance and non-co-operation and to take to spinning.


January 20: In Bombay, spoke at students’ meeting.


January 23: In Calcutta, spoke at students’ meeting under presidentship of C. R. Das, and at a women’s meeting at the residence of C. R. Das.


January 26: In Calcutta, spoke at meeting of merchants. Writing on his book Hind Swaraj in Young India, said that just then he was not aiming at the swaraj described therein.


January 27: Spoke at opening of Tilak National School in Calcutta.


January 28: The Duke of Connaught arrived in Calcutta.


January 29: Gandhiji spoke to post-graduate and law students at Calcutta.


January 30: At Gujranwala, Punjab Students Conference passed resolution welcoming Congress resolution on non-co-operation. Gandhiji, C. R. Das and Mahomed Ali sent a joint message of congratulations to above conference on their resolution. Gandhiji attended birth anniversary celebrations of Swami Vivekananda at Belur Math, near Calcutta.


February 1: At Calcutta, the Duke of Connaught inaugurated new Bengal Legislative Council. Gandhiji spoke at meetings held in Mirzapur Square and Wellington Square, Calcutta, to express disappointment with Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.


Before February 2: Gandhiji, in letter to Duke of Gonnaught, explained that non-participation in welcome to him was a demonstration not against him but against the system he had come to uphold and asked him to study and appreciate the view-point of non-co-operation.


February 4: Spoke at opening of National College in Calcutta.


February 6: In Patna, spoke at opening ceremony of Bihar National University and National College and at public meeting.


February 10: At Banaras, spoke at founding of Kashi Vidyapith. Spoke at Fyzabad.


February 13: At Delhi, spoke at opening ceremony of Tibbia College.


February 15: At Bhiwani, spoke at Hariana Rural Conference presided over by Lala Lajpat Rai.


February 16: At Rohtak, addressed Rural Conference, visited Jat School and laid foundation-stone of Vaishya High School.


February 17: At Calicut, Yakub Hasan and three others were arrested and sentenced to 6 months’ imprisonment.


February 19: Gandhiji spoke at mass meeting in Gujranwala.


February 20: At Nankana Saheb, near Lahore, 160 Akali Sikhs were massacred on the gurudwara premises by faction led by Mahant Narandas.


February 25: At Shri, near Lyallpur, Gandhiji spoke on Nankana Sahib tragedy and counselled patience in acquiring control over gurudwaras.


February 26: In Lucknow, spoke at District Khilafat Conference.


February 28: The Duke of Connaught left India.


March 3: Gandhiji along with Shaukat Ali visited gurudwara at Nankana Saheb and appealed to Sikhs to dedicate their bravery to service of the country.


March 4: Gandhiji addressed message to Lahore Sikhs on Nankana tragedy.


March 5: Spoke at Multan.


March 8: At Jullundur, received address from municipality. Spoke at meetings in Hoshiarpur, Hariana and Ambala.


March 16: In Bombay, spoke at mass meeting and at National College; gave interview to The Daily Herald. Writing in Young India,fixed one crore of rupees as the sum to be collected for Tilak Memorial Swaraj Fund by June 30, 1921


March 17: Spoke at Arvi.


March 18: Spoke at Nagpur mass meeting.


March 19: Spoke at Amraoti.


March 20. Discussing the forthcoming Satyagraha Week, in Navajivan, advised people to spend it in pure tapashcharya.


March 23: Spoke at two meetings in Cuttack. In open letter to Parsis, in Young India, asked them to associate themselves with the temperance movement in the country.


March 24: In Cuttack, spoke at meeting of Muslims and at mass meeting.


March 29: In Berhampur, replied-to welcome address presented by municipality and spoke at mass meeting.


March 30: In Vijayanagaram, spoke at public meeting and pleaded for Hindi being made lingua franca of India. Wrote in Young India that the Congress Constitution, if honestly worked, could oust Government.


March 31: In Bezwada, moved four resolutions at A.I.C.C. meeting.


April 1: Lord Reading arrived in Bombay. In Bezwada Gandhiji spoke in reply to address presented by Municipal Council. Later spoke at A.I.C.C. meeting.


April 2: Lord Chelmsford left India. In Cocanada, Gandhiji spoke in reply to address of welcome presented by Municipal Council.


April 3: Spoke at Rajahmundry and at Ellore.


April 5; In Masulipatam, spoke in reply to address presented by municipality.


April 6: National Week commenced. Gandhiji spoke at Chirala.


April 7: In Nellore, declared open Tilak Vidyalaya; spoke at public meeting.


April 8: In Madras, spoke at public meeting and appealed for unity between Brahmins and non-Brahmins.


April 10 : In Bombay, spoke at public meeting held under auspices of Swarajya Sabha and Central Khilafat Committee.


April 13: In article in Young India, recommended adoption of a National Flag “to live and die for”.

In Ahmedabad, in speech at public meeting, declared: “We want swaraj which should be Ramarajya” later, spoke at Suppressed Classes Conference.


April 15 : Gandhiji addressed public meetings in Ras and Borsad. Reached Godhra at noon.


April 16 : Presided over Taluka Conference at Halol; was presented with purse. Spoke to farmers in the evening.


April 17 : Spoke at meeting of Harijans at Kalol. Left for Godhra.


April 18 : Reached Surat in the morning. Replied to welcome address presented by Surat Municipality, stressing need for introducing spinning-wheels and abolishing untouchability. Addressed students of Patidar Vidyarthi Ashram. Spoke to women in the afternoon and received donations from them for Tilak Swaraj Fund. Left for Olpad, taluka town.


April 20 : Addressed public meeting in Surat in the evening. Spoke at Bulsar.


April 21 : Accompanied by Vallabhbhai Patel and others arrived at Chikhli in the morning. Addressed meetings in Sisodra.


April 22 : Left on Sind tour.


April 24 : Arrived in Sind. In Hyderabad.


April 26 : Reached Karachi in the morning; addressed crowded public meeting, received purse of Rs. 25,000. Told municipal councillors of Karachi to resign if they could not nationalize education by teaching Hindi, organizing spinning class, and meeting expenses from municipal fund without requiring Government grant. In interview with members of Karachi Bar advised them to draw lots to decide which pleaders ought to suspend practice. Those on whom chance fell, should non-co-operate, while the rest should subscribe for maintenance of non-co-operators and their families. Riot broke out at Malegaon, Nasik district.


May 1 : Reached Ahmedabad at night.


May 4 : Reached Kapadvanj in the morning, addressed public meeting. Spoke at women’s meeting in Kathlal. Left for Nadiad at night by car.


May 7 : Reached Bombay in the morning; addressed Maharashtra Provincial Conference.


May 9 : Attended marriage of Sarup Kumari Nehru (Vijayalakshmi) with R. S. Pandit.


May 10 : Received address of welcome from Motilal Nehru on behalf of citizens at Allahabad District Conference which he addressed.


May 11 : Left Allahabad.


May 12 : Reached Simla in the afternoon.


May 13 : Had interview with the Viceroy in the afternoon.


May 14 : Had further interview with Viceroy in the morning. Taken in procession and accorded reception; spoke at public meeting. Addressed meeting of ladies exhorting them to take to swadeshi and contribute liberally to Tilak Swaraj Fund, collected cash and gold ornaments.


May 15 : Addressed meeting at Idgah ground, Simla.


May 21 : Addressed meeting at wayside railway station on way to Bhusawal. Reached Bhusawal; spoke at public meeting.


May 22 : Spoke at meeting in Sangamner.


May 23 : Reached Yeola in the night.


May 24 : At meeting in Barsi, urged public to contribute generously to Tilak Swaraj Fund and to take to swadeshi.


May 26 : Reached Sholapur by car early morning. Replied to Municipal address presented at Ripon Hall.


May 27 : Reached Bijapur from Bagalkot in the evening. Addressed women’s meeting and later, large public meeting. Addresses presented by Municipality and local Merchants’ Association.


May 28 : Left Bijapur.


May 29 : At mass meeting in Bombay, exhorted people to contribute liberally to Tilak Swaraj Fund.


May 30 : Left Bombay for Broach.


June 1 : Spoke at Gujarat Political Conference, Broach. Replied to address presented by Antyaj Conference, Vejalpur.


June 2 : Spoke at Khilafat Conference, Broach.


June 5 : Addressed Gujarat Political Conference.


June 8 : Addressed meetings at Sarkhej, Samod; collected contributions to Tilak Swaraj Fund. Held discussion with lawyers at Ahmedabad.


June 9 : Reached Wadhwan from Ahmedabad by car. Addressed public meeting at residence of Maharaja of Limbdi.


June 12 : Presided over and spoke at public meeting in Ahmedabad.


June 15 : Accorded warm reception by, or addressed citizens at Ghatkopar, Bombay; purse of Rs. 40,000 presented for Tilak Swaraj Fund on behalf of merchant community.


June 18 : Addressed Council of Parsi Central Association on non-co-operation. Refused to appear before Military Requirement Committee.


June 19 : Spoke at public meeting at Vile Parle, Bombay; received purse for Tilak Swaraj Fund.


June 22 : Inaugurated Lokamanya Rashtriya Kanya Shala—Bombay’s first National Girls’ School.


June 25 : Addressed teachers and students of primary schools at Mandvi, Bombay; received purse for Tilak Swaraj Fund.


June 26 : Addressed public meeting at Santa Cruz; received purse of Rs. 30,000 for Tilak Swaraj Fund.


June 30 : Addressed meetings of various associations; received contributions to Tilak Swaraj Fund. Received purses from Cotton Association and Parsi Association. Target of one crore fixed at Bezwada Congress for Tilak Swaraj Fund fulfilled.


July 1 : Spoke on swadeshi at meeting held at Bandra, Bombay.


July 2 : Addressed meetings organized by Bombay Commission Agents’ Association and Lingayat Commission Agents’ Association.


July 6 : Communal riot broke out at Aligarh. Gandhiji issued appeal to mill-owners to conduct business on national and not selfish lines and not to raise price of cloth.


July 7 : Appealed to cloth merchants to stop import of foreign cloth.


July 10 : Spoke on swadeshi at meeting of chemists and druggists in Bombay.


July 12 : Spoke on prohibition to liquor-dealers at meeting organized by Parsi Rajkiya Sabha, Bombay.


July 16 : Spoke on swadeshi at meeting in Parel, Bombay.


July 17 : Report of Non-co-operation Committee of Central Khilafat Committee published. Gandhiji addressed meeting of weavers in Bombay.


July 19 : Addressed in the afternoon Muslim women’s meeting, Bombay. Spoke to Liquor contractors at meeting of Parsi Rajkiya Sabha.


July 20 : Received address from Poona Municipality. Spoke at inauguration of Tilak Mahavidyalaya, unveiled Tilak’s statue. Later addressed public meeting which unanimously resolved to boycott foreign cloth and to use swadeshi.


July 22 : Addressed two public meetings on swadeshi in Bombay.


July 23 : Addressed public meeting under auspices of Parsi Rajkiya Sabha, Bombay.


July 24 : Spoke on swadeshi at Santa Cruz meeting.


July 26 : Spoke on boycott of foreign cloth at meeting in Marwari Vidyalaya and at Byculla, Bombay.


July 28 : All-India Congress Committee met in Bombay.


July 30 : Spoke on swadeshi to crowded meeting of Parsis, held by Parsi Rajkiya Sabha.


July 31 : Proposed in Working Committee resolution on elections to A.I.C.C. Addressed historic meeting to inaugurate swadeshi campaign with bonfire of foreign cloth, near Elphinstone Mill at Parel, Bombay. Spoke at inauguration of khadi exhibition organized by Rashtriya Stree Sabha, Bombay. Appeared as defence witness in Bombay Court.


August 1 : Addressed public meeting at Chowpati, in Bombay, on death anniversary of Tilak.


August 3 : Performed opening ceremony of Khilafat Stores in Bombay.


August 5 : Arrived at Aligarh.


August 6 : Arrived at Moradabad; addressed women’s meeting and public meeting.


August 7 : Addressed mammoth public meeting at Aminuddaula Park, Lucknow.


August 8 : Gandhiji and Central Khilafat Committee appealed to Muslims not to slaughter cows on ensuing Bakr-i-Id.


August 9 : Gandhiji arrived at Kanpur; addressed meetings of merchants and women; received address, spoke at public meeting; gave interview to Aaj.


August 10 : Reached Allahabad in the morning and spoke to women on swadeshi. In the evening addressed public meeting at which Motilal Nehru presided.


August 11 : Addressed meeting at Sahasram.


August 12 : Reached Gaya, addressed public meeting at night.


August 13 : Was accorded reception by weavers at Bihar Sharif. Spoke at public meeting at which Municipal address was presented. Attended ladies’ meeting at night.


August 15 : Appealed to residents of Simla Hills not to undertake begar for British Government.


August 16 : In Patna.


August 17 : Addressed public meeting in the evening at Mirzapur Park, Calcutta. Received address from Seva Samiti at Sealdah station; left for Assam.


August 19 : Met Congress Workers in the evening at the house of Gopinath Bardoli, Secretary, Assam Provincial Congress Committee.


August 21: A military proclamation was issued as the Moplahs in Malabar rose in revolt on August 20, set up Khilafat raj and looted Hindu zemindars.


August 22: In Tezpur, at public meeting, Gandhiji lit bonfire of foreign cloth.


August 24: In Jorhat, received address from ratepayers’ Association and Sarbajanik Sabha. Left for Tinsukia en route to Dibrugarh.


August 25: In Dibrugarh, addressed women’s meeting and public meeting.


August 30: From Sylhet sent telegram and letter to Vallabhbhai Patel suggesting hartal in protest against visit of Prince of Wales.


August 31: In Chittagong, spoke giving advice to railway workers on strike and telling them how he had successfully guided strike of forty thousand workers in South Africa.


September 1: In Young India, wrote on “Ethics of Destruction”, replying to C. F. Andrews on burning of foreign cloth; also wrote on “National Education” and discussed question of medium of instruction.


September 4: In Navajivan, wrote on “Moplah Outbreak”, on “Preparations for Congress” in Ahmedabad and on his experiences of Assam tour.


September 5: Wrote to Vallabhbhai Patel on postponement of civil disobedience.


September 6: In Calcutta, met Rabindranath Tagore.


September 7: Spoke at Punjab Sabha meeting and addressed Marwari merchants.


September 8: Addressed public meetings on boycott of foreign cloth.


September 10: Addressed Khilafat volunteers.


September 13: In Midnapore, addressed a meeting.


September 14: Mahomed Ali arrested at Waltair on way to Malabar. Gandhiji’s message to Bombay citizens on arrest of Mahomed Ali.


After September 14: Addressed circular letter to leaders inviting them to meet in Bombay to consider arrest of Ali Brothers and others.


September 15: Arrived at Madras. Interviewed by representatives of Daily Express and Madras Mail. Spoke at public meeting. Appealed to Hindi-lovers to give financial help for spreading Hindi in Madras.


September 16: In Madras, addressed meetings of women, piecegoods merchants and labourers.


September 17: In Cuddalore, addressed public meeting. Left for Porto Novo en route to Kumbakonam. Sir Sankaran Nair resigned membership of Council of India.


September 18: C. R. Das elected President of Congress. In Kumbakonam, Gandhiji spoke at public meeting.


September 19: In Trichinopoly, spoke in reply to address by the Municipality and Congress Committee.


September 20: In Srirangam, spoke in reply to municipal address and at public meeting.


September 21: In Dindigul, spoke in reply to address by Municicipal Council and at public meeting. In Madura, replied to address of welcome.


September 22: In Madura, issued message on swadeshi and loin-cloth. In Tiruppathur, spoke at citizens’ meeting. Addressed meetings at Kanadukathan, Kottayur and Devakottah.


September 23: Interview to Deshabhimani. Spoke at Tinnevelly.


September 24: Issued appeal to Muslims of India on arrest of Ali Brothers.


September 25: In Navajivan, wrote on Hindu-Muslim unity.


September 26: Trial of Ali Brothers and others commenced at Karachi.


September 27: In Salem, Gandhiji spoke in reply to Municipal address and at public meeting.


September 28: In Tirupati, spoke in reply to Municipal address.


September 29: In Young India, wrote, on “Tempering with Loyalty” in reply to Bombay Governor’s warning against sedition.


October 1: In Bellary, replied to Municipal address.


October 2: In Navajivan, wrote on “My Loin-cloth”. Sent on his birthday a message on swadeshi to the Bhagini Samaj, Bombay.


October 4: Issued, with other leaders, Manifesto appealing to soldiers and civilians to sever connection with Government.


October 5: In a letter to The Bombay Chronicle, appealed to people to remain peaceful in the event of his arrest. Message to workers of the Ceded Districts.


October 6: In Navajivan, wrote on problems of Indians in East Africa.


October 8: In Ahmedabad, spoke at meeting of pupils of workers’ schools.


October 9: In Navajivan, wrote advising observance of strict non-violence, adoption of swadeshi, etc., in the event of his arrest. In Navajivan, in article “Gujarat’s Test”, urged Gujarat to set an example by vigorous prosecution of non-co-operation programme.


October 12: Spoke on swadeshi at Surat.


October 13: “The Great Sentinel”, reply to Rabindranath Tagore appeared in Young India.


October 16: In Navajivan, Gandhiji urged Bombay to complete swadeshi programme, to be the first province to start peaceful revolt in the form of civil disobedience. In his notes, in Navajivan, criticized colour bar in Fiji and East Africa and untouchability in India.


October 19: Sent telegrams to C. Vijayaraghavachariar and Motilal Nehru on powers of Working Committee and A.I.C.C. president.


October 20: In Young India, wrote on “The Meaning of the Moplah Rising”


October 23: In Ahmedabad, spoke on swadeshi to women. In Navajivan, appealed to Ahmedabad workers to give up drink habit.


October 27: Young India published Mahomed Ali’s letter to Gandhiji from Karachi Jail. In Young India, in his article “Honour the Prince” while urging complete boycott of functions, Gandhiji appealed for “forbearance towards those who differ from us”. In Young India in article “The Secret of It” answered 24 very searching questions.


October 29: In Ahmedabad, spoke at bonfire of foreign cloth.


October 31: Began vow of spinning—to spin half an hour every day before the second meal, and to forgo the meal in case he failed to do so.


November 4: In Delhi, spoke on civil disobedience resolution at the A.I.C.C. meeting.


November 5: In Delhi, spoke on resolution regarding renouncing of government service including service in army.


November 9: In Lahore, delivered convocation address at National College.


November 10: In Lahore, spoke at public meeting on conviction of Ali Brothers. In Young India article, “The Momentous Issue”, explained conditions for civil disobedience.


November 16: In Ahmedabad, spoke on birth anniversary of Srimad Rajchandra.

Before November 17:In message to Bombay public meeting, suggested steps to boycott celebrations in honour of Prince of Wales.


November 17: In Bombay, addressed public meeting urging firm adherence to complete non-violence, swadeshi and Hindu-Muslim unity. Outbreak of riots in Bombay on arrival of Prince of Wales. In Young India, in article “Introspection”, Gandhiji explained meaning of his threat of suicide if swaraj were not attained by end of December.


November 18: In “A Deep Stain”, condemned riots in Bombay.


November 19: Commenced fast; appealed to citizens of Bombay for peace and communal amity.

November 20: Issued appeal to Mava

lis of Bombay.


November 21: Broke fast at a gathering of Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Parsis. In a statement, appealed for communal harmony.


November 22: His message to co-workers published in Young India.


November 25: District Magistrate of Allahabad issued notices to Congress workers prohibiting meetings regarding civil disobedience.


November 26 : Viceroy declared Government’s policy on non-co-operation in course of reply to Punjab Chamber of Commerce deputation. Gandhiji issued appeal to citizens of Bombay on communal amity.


November 27: Issued letter to Liberals on events in Malabar.


December 2: Lala Lajpat Rai, K. Santanam and others arrested under Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act.


December 3: Gandhiji complimented people of Bardoli on removal untouchability.


December 4: In Navajivan article, characterized love as master key of non-co-operation.


December 6: Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru and others arrested at Allahabad under Section 17, Criminal Law Amendment Act.


On or after December 7: Gandhiji congratulated C. R. Das on arrest of his wife and other women of Bengal.


December 10 : George Joseph, editor of The Independent, sentenced to 18 months simple imprisonment. C. R. Das arrested at Calcutta.


December 11: Harilal Gandhi and other volunteers arrested.


December 15: Gandhiji, in Young India article “A Puzzle and Its Solution”, declared “the non-co-operators are at war with the Government”. Commenting on the arrest of C. R. Das’s wife, appealed to women to take up Government’s challenge. Telegraphed to Sri Prakasa congratulations on the arrest of his father, Babu Bhagwandas.


December 17: Jawaharlal Nehru was sentenced to 6 months’ simple imprisonment and a fine of Rs. 100 under Criminal Law Amendment Act.


December 19: Gandhiji, in telegram to Malaviya, said that round table conference would be abortive unless Government was truly penitent and fulfilled conditions stated by him. In telegram to C. R. Das and Abul Kalam Azad, stated conditions for waiving proposed hartal. S. E. Stokes sentenced to 6 months’ simple imprisonment on refusing to furnish security under Sections 124-A and 123-A. Lala Sankarlal sentenced to 4 months’ rigorous imprisonment under Criminal Law Amendment Act.


December 20: At Ahmedabad, Gandhiji gave interview to Associated Press regarding proposed Round Table Conference. At Allahabad, security of the Independent forfeited. Krishnakant Malaviya, Editor of Abhyudaya, and Govind Malaviya arrested while picketing. Jairam Saxena, Secretary, U.P. Congress Committee, sentenced to 18 months’ rigorous imprisonment. At Hyderabad, Sind, Jairamdas Daulatram, Secretary, Sind Provincial Congress Committee, arrested under Section 124-A, I.P.C.


On or after December 20: In telegram to Malaviya Gandhiji expressed inability to give undertaking to stop non-co-operation pending proposed Round Table Conference.


December 21 : At Calcutta, deputation led by Malaviya met Viceroy. Viceroy, replying to deputation said that it was impossible even to consider convening a conference if “agitation in open and avowed defiance of law” was meanwhile to be continued. C. Rajagopalachari and Arni Subramania Sastri sentenced to 3 months’ rigorous  mprisonment for civil disobedience of order under Sec. 144. Krishnakant Malaviya, Chanderkant Malaviya and Govind Malaviya fined Rs. 100 each under Criminal Law Amendment Act.


December 22: First handwritten issue of the Independent appeared.


December 23: At Ahmedabad, Gandhiji attended Working Committee meeting which selected Hakim Ajmal Khan as President for forthcoming Congress Session, in absence of C. R. Das, President-elect.


December 24: Mahadev Desai sentenced to one year’s rigorous imprisonment for publishing handwritten issue of the Independent. At Ahmedabad, Gandhiji, in interview to Associated Press, regarding Viceroy’s speech of December 21, said that Government had to stop its offensive activity aimed at lawful, disciplined non-violent agitation and that there could be no yielding on right of holding public meetings and forming associations.


December 25: In Subjects Committee meeting at Ahmedabad moved main resolution of session.


December 27: Spoke at Subjects Committee meeting. Open Session of 36th Indian National Congress commenced at Ahmedabad; Gandhiji attended. Gandhiji attended Khilafat Conference.


December 28: In morning? spoke at Subjects Committee meeting on proposed Round Table Conference. In open Session, moved resolution on non-violent non-co-operation. Also spoke on Hasrat Mohani’s motion on complete independence.


December 29: Gave interview to Congress delegates from Bengal. In Young India, outlined code of behaviour for non-co-operators in jail.


December 30: Gave interview to Congress leaders from U.P.Attended Muslim League session.


December 31: Attended lecture by Paul Richard at Gujarat Vidyapith; also spoke there.